Ukrainian Science

Eminent names and scientific schools

In the twentieth century, a number of renowned scientific schools were established in Ukraine dealing with problems of geochemistry and the natural sciences (V. Vernadsky), mechanics (S. Tymoshenko), oriental studies (A. Krymsky), microbiology (D. Zabolotny), biology (0. Bohomolets), chemistry (L. Pysar/hcvsky), electrical welding and bridge-building (Ye. Paton), physics (M. Boholiubov), cybernetics (V. Glushkov), space engineering (M. Yanhel), etc. Ukrainian scientists and scholars can boast major achievements, such as the artificial nuclear reaction to split the lithium nucleus; production of heavy water; a procedure for automatically welding lank bodies; the Europe’s first computer; new areas pioneered in metallurgy: electric metallurgy with electroslag, plasma-arc, and plasma electron-beam remelting, development of unique rockets and spacecraft, etc.

Ukraine’s Scientific Potential

Science is a major factor allowing Ukraine to be ranked among the world’s advanced countries in the twenty-first century. By the beginning of the year 2000, Ukraine’s scientific potential of Ukraine comprised 1,506 scientific institutions and organizations. Of these, 289 were in the academic sector, 160 were institutions of higher learning, while 964 belonged to the industry, and 93 to the factory sector. 126,000 persons are directly engaged in research and engineering activities. These include 4,132 doctors and over 20,000 candidates of sciences. Six state academies are leaders in Ukrainian science: the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science, Academy of Medical Science, Academy of Jurisprudence, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, and the Academy of Arts. The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine is responsible for the governmental management of scientific and scholarly activities.

The Coming Future

Ukraine is proud to comply with world scientific standards in mathematics, mechanics, physics, computer science, materials science, and a number of other trends directly related to the manufacture of the high tech science-intensive products increasingly demanded by foreign scientific institutions and industrial firms. For instance, a unique pilot plant has been built, which simulates the effect of outer space on spacecraft. Germany and China have purchased this plant and the European Space Agency is using it for research purposes. Together with Pratt and Whitney, a US aerospace firm, the Institute of Electrical Welding is developing a procedure for producing new materials using the technique of high-speed electron-beam evaporation and condensation of matter in a vacuum. The Institute of Monocrystals, a research and technical concern, supplies scintillation crystals as well as sapphire implants and tools to research centers in the US, Japan and Switzerland for neurosurgical and ophthalmological applications. Researchers at the Institute for Cryobiology and Cryomcdicine have arranged production of competitive biological preparations on request by many foreign firms. During the years of independence, a basic advance has been made by Ukraine in the social sciences and humanities. This contributed much to the nation’s rethinking of its centuries-long path in the historical and cultural development and today’s position of Ukraine in the context of the international and European civilizing process. This is the fifteenth year that the Ukrainian scholars have been involved in studying the scientific, technological, economic, medical, and social aspects with the goal of mitigating the consequences of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster, turning the devastated Unit 4 into an ecologically sound system, and establishing an international test field within the affected area for investigating the impact of radiation on the environment. Ukrainian science is making successful efforts to be integrated into the international scientific community. Each year dozens of monographs by Ukrainian scholars are published abroad. Many Ukrainian scientific journals are translated into foreign languages. Under the aegis of UNESCO, an international research and educational centre for information technologies and systems as well as international chairs of cryobiology and physiology have been set up in Ukraine. Established in 1993, the International Association of Academies of Sciences is playing an important role to stimulate integration processes among Academies of Sciences of CIS countries. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine headed by Academician Borys Paton, its world-renowned President, remains the stronghold of these research institutions.

Ukrainian Space Industry

Young independent Ukraine confidently became one of the world space states owing to its space research and production potential. In February 1992, National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU) was established to implement state space activities policy. Its control sphere includes about 30 production enterprises, research organizations and design offices. The enterprises of space industry gain great experience in development and production of modern launch vehicles, spacecraft, engines, control and telemeter system. New materials and technologies are being phased in, and some of them have no counterparts. Space goods and services export increased from year to year. Currently, space industry restructuring is being prepared and implemented to assure further development of enterprises in market environment. The restructuring provides forming of favorable business and investment climate, advance in rates of science intensive production output, development of new competitive techniques, increase the quality and efficiency of production. It is planned to corporatize and incorporate state-owned companies, possibilities for establishment of international investment fund are also considered. So, Ukrainian space industry enters into new millennium introducing market innovation system, which is favorable for improving investment climate and attracting investors to mutual beneficial cooperation within joint commercial projects.